Hypodermic Needle Theory –

  • Passive audiences are ‘’injected’’ with ideologies, beliefs, messages and values.
  • Our behaviour is easily and directly shaped by the media messages.

Two Step Flow –

  • Assumes a more active audience who will discuss the media texts with each other
  • It still assumes that we can be passive
  • Proposes that we are influenc ed by ‘’opinion leaders’’ e.g. parents, doctors and experts.

Opinion Leaders –

  • Opinion Leaders could be a range of different people. It has to be someone that you trust knows a lot about that particular topic.

Cultivation Theory –

  • Repeated exposure to a media message will lead to ‘’desensitisation’’ i.e. audience become less sensitive.

Uses and Gratifications Theory –

  • Looks at why the audience use the media
  • Assumes that audiences are active consumers – they are not passive. Audience have variety of needs that they gratify through the media.

Reception Theory –

  • The audience do not passively accept a media text.
  • Hall proposed three different audience readings

Reading –

  • Dominant Reading = Media text interpreted in the way intended by the producer. – This position is one where the consumer takes the actual meaning directly, and decodes it exactly the way it was encoded.
  • Negotiated Reading = Audience accepts some of the media text but not all aspects. – This position is a mixture of accepting and rejecting elements. Readers are acknowledging the dominant message, but are not willing to completely accept it the way the encoder has intended.
  • Oppositional Reading = Audience in conflict with the texts message. – In this position a consumer understands the literal meaning, but due to different backgrounds each individual has their own way of decoding messages, while forming their own interpretations.