Hypodermic Needle Theory –
- Passive audiences are ‘’injected’’ with ideologies, beliefs, messages and values.
- Our behaviour is easily and directly shaped by the media messages.
Two Step Flow –
- Assumes a more active audience who will discuss the media texts with each other
- It still assumes that we can be passive
- Proposes that we are influenc ed by ‘’opinion leaders’’ e.g. parents, doctors and experts.
Opinion Leaders –
- Opinion Leaders could be a range of different people. It has to be someone that you trust knows a lot about that particular topic.
Cultivation Theory –
- Repeated exposure to a media message will lead to ‘’desensitisation’’ i.e. audience become less sensitive.
Uses and Gratifications Theory –
- Looks at why the audience use the media
- Assumes that audiences are active consumers – they are not passive. Audience have variety of needs that they gratify through the media.
Reception Theory –
- The audience do not passively accept a media text.
- Hall proposed three different audience readings
- Dominant Reading = Media text interpreted in the way intended by the producer. – This position is one where the consumer takes the actual meaning directly, and decodes it exactly the way it was encoded.
- Negotiated Reading = Audience accepts some of the media text but not all aspects. – This position is a mixture of accepting and rejecting elements. Readers are acknowledging the dominant message, but are not willing to completely accept it the way the encoder has intended.
- Oppositional Reading = Audience in conflict with the texts message. – In this position a consumer understands the literal meaning, but due to different backgrounds each individual has their own way of decoding messages, while forming their own interpretations.