- First publication which could be called a magazine was german – Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen. This was released in 1663.
- The name Magazine appeared in 1731- comes from the Arabic word which means Warehouse.
- Technological progress, increased circulation and increasing use of imagines, magazines are becoming more attractive to advertisers. – First advertising agency was established in 1890 and from that point on advertising started to flourish
- In early 20th century one of the most important icons within the world of publishing appeared – William Randolph Hearst.
- Hearst expanded his empore to magazine publishing starting with the famous ‘Good Housekeeping’ ‘National Geographic’ and ‘Harper’s Bazaar’
- In 1933, the American Henry Wolfew changed the look of Esquire magazine. He influenced the design and art work which is now used in magazines.
- In 1945, Helene Gordon Lazareff launched a magazine which was aimed for women. It greatly changed the way women think, speak and perceive themselves. This was the magazine Elle (French for “she”)
- Weekly Elle instructed French women on how to be attractive and nice. The success of the magazine was huge and influenced the rest of the genre of women’s magazines.
How has digitalisation affected the magazine industry?
Effects on production?
- Digital photography and digital design software have revolutionised how magazines are now produced. This means that it is no cheaper, fast and provides greater creative ability.
- Magazines can now be produced by much smaller organisations / companies because production is now much cheaper.
- However, with this new technology it can create problems such as body image as body manipulation on photos is now able to be done.
The difference between these two front covers is the lack of colour in the left magazine cover. The Elle cover is bright and light. Which the Good Housekeeping cover is dull with less obvious colour. Also, the Elle image is of a woman while the GH has a drawn image of a young girl. The difference between the quality of magazine is also immaculate.
Effects on Distribution?
- Magazines distributed through retail outlets plus online. This can create a greater audience and give more accessibility.
- An example of a magazine which is distributed online as well as in print format is NME. It is now mainly online but it is now free in print format around different stores.
Effects on Consumption?
- Reading print and online versions
- Reading on the move is made easier with mobile technology as you can now get magazines online.
Are Print magazines a thing of the past?
“Just like their newspaper cousins, magazines have been greatly affected by the influence of the Internet. With so much information available online, advertisers and readers are accessing content on the Internet, causing declines in both revenue and readership. These changes are forcing magazines to adapt to an increasingly online market.”
Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication, v. 1.0 by Jack Lule
How has the digitalisation affected the magazine industry?
- In recent years several magazines have become online only magazines e.g PC world and Elle Girl
- Most magazines have created online version of the print magazine offering magazine-like content with new media content.
- This is as its easier to get information online and provides quicker information then having to wait a week to get news you can get in a few minutes.
With the rise of the online magazine format, how has the role of the journalist changed?
- You need to understand webdesign and how to upload digitally.
- More images and videos are wanted/needed to make things more appealing. – This means the demand for photo journalists are more prominent as its cheaper than hiring two different people.
- The Journalism world is wanting more multi-skilled journalists.
The Guardian – The fall and rise of magazines from print to digital. 7th March 2013.
- Sales of celebrity titles such as Heat, Hello! And Closer have plummeted as celebritity websites are picking up more views.
- Magazine sales are down by around 16% if now higher.
- Interactive versions of magazines are becoming more dominate in the magazine industry. This is because it interests people more with images, videos and moving images.
- Journalists may prefer digital work as they can write more passionately and freely without having to wrestle with a boardroom.
- Well written magazines can gain a lot more custom. An example of this is Stylist. This is a free women’s print magazine which uses traditional advertising.
- ‘The speed of delivery is virtual, but so too is the tone of the magazine, which is very profitable. There are editions in 32 countries.’ – Charlie Turner on the Top Gear Virtual Magazine.
- In the hands of a good editor – interactive magazines can be packed with goodies and more amazing aspects for the magazine. This is a way some editors have embraced this digital change.
Magazine Publishers – Hearst Magazine
- Hearst magazine is a magazine which began nearly a century ago, with the first issue of Good Housekeeping and has since grown into a network that reaches millions of people every day. The magazine, which is classes its self as a business, is still changing. Hearst also believe that the power of magazines is o fulfil their purpose – to give people the confidence to live the life they want to live.
- The story of Hearst starts in 1910 when Randolph Hearst bought Nash’s, a British fiction magazine. Hearst, having acquired Good Housekeeping in the US decided to replicate it within the UK due to its success. Good Housekeeping then launched in 1922 and was an instant hit in Britain. It was mainly bought by women who wished to make their home before their husbands returned from the First World War.
- Early fifties saw the launch of Vanity Fair aimed at younger women and House Beautiful, targeted for young home-makers.
- In 1955, the company launched She, full of jokes, competitions and fun.
- In 1971 Cosmopolitan, too, crossed the Atlantic. The UK edition made its debut in 1972 selling out on the evening of its first day.
- In 1999, the pioneering website Digital Spy launched specialising in TV, gaming and technology – it was acquired by Hearst in 2011.
- In 2012 Hearst launched more digital copies of magazines.
- Good Housekeeping also celebrated its 90th birthday that year with its first Ipad app and a dedicated UK website.
- The main themes within the magazine are fashion and make-up.
- All about helping guide young women about their body image, confidence and relationships.
- Usually for women 18 – 35.
- This is from a psychographic profiling on the Hearst website.
- Readership is 1.3 million.
- ABC1 within the socio- economic status read it more than anyone in the lower statuses (64%)
- A lot of people use the internet – digital copy would still get sales/views.
Advertisement in Prima –
- Double page – 5
- Single page – 19
“according to *insert author* “*insert quote*” (YEAR)